Words by Jane Chin, Ph.D.
Rock climbing is becoming more popular, and with this, is an increasing interest in trends and patterns of climbing injuries and accidents. Physician researchers from a German university decided to investigate common causes of climbing accidents and injuries in an indoor climbing gym setting. They analyzed over 500 thousand visits to a major city climbing gym during a 5 year period (2007-2011). This represented the first study to accurately track time spent indoor climbing and the types of acute injuries in a large number of climbers.
The average climbing time was almost 3 hours each session and climbers were about 2/3 male and 1/3 female. Median age was 34 years (actual logged ages ranged from 8 to 80 years old). Within the 5 year survey period, 30 climbing injuries were recorded: Acute injuries happened in 6 cases of bouldering, 16 cases of lead climbing, 7 cases of top roping, and 1 case of watching (spectating; not climbing or belaying). Injuries were rated on a severity spectrum from 0 to 6 (immediate death) — see Table 2. In this 5 year analysis of indoor rock climbing, there were no fatalities.
Table 2 from Schöffl 2013 (sourced below)
Once Weekly Climbers Experienced Highest Injury Rates
We may assume that climbing “accidents” should occur more often in beginners, but researchers found that about 17% of the accidents occurred with beginners (experience of <20 climbing days) while 53% climbing accidents were with climbers with “intermediate experience”, climbing about once a week. The “serious” climbers, logging 2-3 climbing days each week, experienced 20% of the injuries, and climbing “professionals” who teach belay and climbing skills had 10% — see Table 3.
Table 3 from Schöffl 2013 (sourced below)
Lead Belaying Mistakes Account for Climbing Accidents
Most of the injuries in lead and top-rope climbing were due to belaying mistakes at 10 cases out of 23 lead/top rope climbing accidents logged. Bouldering injuries were primarily due to falls on the mat. The researchers were surprised at the incidence of injuries from top-rope climbing, as top-rope was assumed “safer” than lead climbing or bouldering. Yet top-rope climbing mistakes manifested across the experience spectrum from beginners through professional experienced climbers.
Thus partner checks in any type of rope climbing should be mandatory, where both the belayer and climber check to make sure that:
- Harness fasteners are double backed.
- All knots are correctly tied and through the proper hard point of the harness.
- Carabiner is on the proper hard point of the harness, is locked, and the belay device is properly loaded.
- The free end of the rope is secured by the brake hand of the belayer.
The most serious top-rope accident in the study occurred when a climber followed a climb on top rope that had been led by their partner. In these situations, since the leader has clipped the rope into the wall as they completed the initial climb, the follower must un-clip the rope as they go up the wall. With this particular case, the leader neglected to clip the rope into the final anchor at the top of the climb, and was instead lowered from the last clip on the wall. When the second climber cleaned the lead (un-clipped the rope while they climbed), the climber un-clipped every draw, including the final clip, meaning that when the climber weighted the rope to be lowered, he was no longer attached to the wall, resulting in a free fall to the ground. Accidents such as these are rare, but they do happen, and are completely preventable. In this particular case, there was a separate top rope affixed to the top of the same climb, therefore the partners should have checked to be sure the second climber was top roping on the properly secured rope, and should have pulled the unsecured rope before the climber started up the wall.
These checks can sometimes feel so straightforward that even climbers of all experience levels can become complacent, and neglect to double check even the most “obvious” things, which can result in dangerous situations.
Jane Chin lead climbing at Sender One LAX (Image by Cass Chin)
“Climbing is a dangerous sport”
Climbing is a Dangerous Sport! – We climbers hear this and see this posted at climbing gyms, but this isn’t just a sound bite. The risks are real! Climbers understand that climbing is dangerous, and the most experienced climbers develop a healthy respect for all aspects of climbing safety.
As a matter of fact, we may assume that serious belaying mistakes occur with new or inexperienced climbers, when social science research shows that human error occurs not primarily due to incompetence, but actually due to experience resulting in over-confidence. In other words, experienced climbers screw up because they were so confident in what they were doing that they overlooked the need to go over basics.
My husband and I each have had this experience both as belayer and climber. For example, I have forgotten to screw tight the gri-gri locking mechanism before belaying my husband; even with the gri-gri’s safety features, not tightening that screw could have consequences if he took a big lead climbing fall. Another example is in his